Spark is the Future of Analytics

At the 2016 Spark Summit, Gartner Research Director Nick Heudecker asked: Is Spark the Future of Data Analysis?  It’s an interesting question, and it requires a little parsing. Nobody believes that Spark alone is the future of data analysis, even its most ardent proponents. A better way to frame the question: Does Spark have a role in the future of analytics? What is that role?

Unfortunately, Heudecker didn’t address the question but spent the hour throwing shade at Spark.

Spark is overhyped! He declared. His evidence? This:

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One might question an analysis that equates real things like optimization with fake things like “Citizen Data Science.” Gartner’s Hype Cycle by itself proves nothing; it’s a conceptual salad, with neither empirical foundation nor predictive power.

If you want to argue that Spark is overhyped, produce some false or misleading claims by project principals, or documented cases where the software failed to work as claimed. It’s possible that such cases exist. Personally, I don’t know of any, and neither does Nick Heudecker, or he would have included them in his presentation.

Instead, he cited a Gartner survey showing that organizations don’t use Spark and Flink as much as they use other tools for data analysis. From my notes, here are the percentages:

  • EDW: 57%
  • Cloud: 44%
  • Hadoop: 42%
  • Stat Packages: 32%
  • Spark or Flink: 9%
  • Graph Databases: 8%

That 42% figure for Hadoop is interesting. In 2015, Gartner concern-trolled the tech community, trumpeting the finding that “only” 26% of respondents in a survey said they were “deploying, piloting or experimenting with Hadoop.” So — either Hadoop adoption grew from 26% to 42% in a year, or Gartner doesn’t know how to do surveys.

In any event, it’s irrelevant; statistical packages have been available for 40 years, EDWs for 25, Spark for 3. The current rate of adoption for a project in its youth tells you very little about its future. It’s like arguing that a toddler is cognitively challenged because she can’t do integral calculus without checking the Wolfram app on her iPad.

Heudecker closed his presentation with the pronouncement that he had no idea whether or not Spark is the future of data analysis, and bolted the venue faster than a jackrabbit on Ecstasy. Which begs the question: why pay big bucks for analysts who have no opinion about one of the most active projects in the Big Data ecosystem?

Here are eight reasons why Spark has a central role in the future of analytics.

(1) Nearly everyone who uses Hadoop will use Spark.

If you believe that 42% of enterprises use Hadoop, you must believe that 41.9% will use Spark. Every Hadoop distribution includes Spark. Hive and Pig run on Spark. Hadoop early adopters will gradually replace existing MapReduce applications and build most new applications in Spark. Late adopters may never use MapReduce.

The only holdouts for MapReduce will be those who want their analysis the way they want their barbecue: low and slow.

Of course, Hadoop adoption isn’t static. Forrester’s Mike Gualtieri argues that 100% of enterprises will use Hadoop within a few years.

(2) Lots of people who don’t use Hadoop will use Spark.

For Hadoop users, Spark is a fast replacement for MapReduce. But that’s not all it is. Spark is also a general-purpose data processing environment for advanced analytics. Hadoop has baggage that data science teams don’t need, so it’s no surprise to see that most Spark users aren’t using it with Hadoop. One of the key advantages of Spark is that users aren’t tied to a particular storage back end, but can choose from many different options. That’s essential in real-world data science.

(3) For scalable open source data science, Spark is the only game in town.

If you want to argue that Spark has no future, you’re going to have to name an alternative. I’ll give you a minute to think of something.

Time’s up.

You could try to approximate Spark’s capabilities with a collection of other projects: for example, you could use Presto for SQL, H2O for machine learning, Storm for streaming, and Giraph for graph analysis. Good luck pulling those together. H2O.ai was one of the first vendors to build an interface to Spark because even if you want to use H2O for machine learning, you’re still going to use Spark for data wrangling.

“What about Flink?” you ask. Well, what about it? Flink may have a future, too, if anyone ever supports it other than ten guys in a loft on the Tempelhofer Ufer. Flink’s event-based runtime seems well-suited for “pure” streaming applications, but that’s low-value bottom-of-the-stack stuff. Flink’s ML library is still pretty limited, and improving it doesn’t appear to be a high priority for the Flink team.

(4) Data scientists who work exclusively with “small data” still need Spark.

Data scientists satisfy most business requests for insight with small datasets that can fit into memory on a single machine. Even if you measure your largest dataset in gigabytes, however, there are two ways you need Spark: to create your analysis dataset and to parallelize operations.

Your analysis dataset may be small, but it comes from a larger pool of enterprise data. Unless you have servants to pull data for you, at some point you’re going to have to get your hands dirty and deal with data at enterprise scale. If you are lucky, your organization has nice clean data in a well-organized data warehouse that has everything anyone will ever need in a single source of truth.

Ha ha! Just kidding. Single sources of truth don’t exist, except in the wildest fantasies of data warehouse vendors. In reality, you’re going to muck around with many different sources and integrate your analysis data on the fly. Spark excels at that.

For best results, machine learning projects require hundreds of experiments to identify the best algorithm and optimal parameters. If you run those tests serially, it will take forever; distribute them across a Spark cluster, and you can radically reduce the time needed to find that optimal model.

(5) The Spark team isn’t resting on its laurels.

Over time, Spark has evolved from a research project for scalable machine learning to a general purpose data processing framework. Driven by user feedback, Spark has added SQL and streaming capabilities, introduced Python and R APIs, re-engineered the machine learning libraries, and many other enhancements.

Here are some projects under way to improve Spark:

— Project Tungsten, an ongoing effort to optimize CPU and memory utilization.

— A stable serialization format (possibly Apache Arrow) for external code integration.

— Integration with deep learning frameworks, including TensorFlow and Intel’s new BigDL library.

— A cost-based optimizer for Spark SQL.

— Improved interfaces to data sources.

— Continuing improvements to the Python and R APIs.

Performance improvement is an ongoing mission; for selected operations, Spark 2.0 runs 10X faster than Spark 1.6.

(6) More cool stuff is on the way.

Berkeley’s AMPLab, the source of Spark, Mesos, and Tachyon/Alluxio, is now RISELab. There are four projects under way at RISELab that will extend Spark capabilities:

Clipper is a prediction serving system that brokers between machine learning frameworks and end-user applications. The first Alpha release, planned for mid-April 2017, will serve scikit-learn, Spark ML and Spark MLLib models, and arbitrary Python functions.

Drizzle, an execution engine for Apache Spark, uses group scheduling to reduce latency in streaming and iterative operations. Lead developer Shivaram Venkataraman has filed a design document to implement this approach in Spark.

Opaque is a package for Spark SQL that uses Intel SGX trusted hardware to deliver strong security for DataFrames. The project seeks to enable analytics on sensitive data in an untrusted cloud, with data encryption and access pattern hiding.

Ray is a distributed execution engine for Spark designed for reinforcement learning.

Three Apache projects in the Incubator build on Spark:

— Apache Hivemall is a scalable machine learning library implemented as a collection of Hive UDFs designed to run on Hive, Pig or Spark SQL with MapReduce, Tez or Spark.

— Apache PredictionIO is a machine learning server built on top of an open source stack, including Spark, HBase, Spray, and Elasticsearch.

— Apache SystemML is a library of machine learning algorithms that run on Spark and MapReduce, originally developed by IBM Research.

MIT’s CSAIL lab is working on ModelDB, a system to manage machine learning models. ModelDB extracts and stores model artifacts and metadata, and makes this data available for easy querying and visualization. The current release supports Spark ML and scikit-learn.

(7) Commercial vendors are building on top of Spark.

The future of analytics is a hybrid stack, with open source at the bottom and commercial software for business users at the top. Here is a small sample of vendors who are building easy-to-use interfaces atop Spark.

Alpine Data provides a collaboration environment for data science and machine learning that runs on Spark (and other platforms.)

AtScale, an OLAP on Big Data solution, leverages Spark SQL and other SQL engines, including Hive, Impala, and Presto.

Dataiku markets Data Science Studio, a drag-and-drop data science workflow tool with connectors for many different storage platforms, scikit-learn, Spark ML and XGboost.

StreamAnalytix, a drag-and-drop platform for real-time analytics, supports Spark SQL and Spark Streaming, Apache Storm, and many different data sources and sinks.

Zoomdata, an early adopter of Spark, offers an agile visualization tool that works with Spark Streaming and many other platforms.

All of the leading agile BI tools, including Tableau, Qlik, and PowerBI, support Spark. Even stodgy old Oracle’s Big Data Discovery tool runs on Spark in Oracle Cloud.

(8) All of the leading commercial advanced analytics platforms use Spark.

All of them, including SAS, a company that embraces open source the way Sylvester the Cat embraces a skunk. SAS supports Spark in SAS Data Loader for Hadoop, one of SAS’ five different Hadoop architectures. (If you don’t like SAS architecture, wait six months for another.)

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Magic Quadrant for Advanced Analytics Platforms, 2016

— IBM embraces Spark like Romeo embraced Juliet, hopefully with a better ending. IBM contributes heavily to the Spark project and has rebuilt many of its software products and cloud services to use Spark.

— KNIME’s Spark Executor enables users of the KNIME Analytics Platform to create and execute Spark applications. Through a combination of visual programming and scripting, users can leverage Spark to access data sources, blend data, train predictive models, score new data, and embed Spark applications in a KNIME workflow.

— RapidMiner’s Radoop module supports visual programming across SparkR, PySpark, Pig, and HiveQL, and machine learning with SparkML and H2O.

— Statistica, which is no longer part of Dell, offers Spark integration in its Expert and Enterprise editions.

— Microsoft supports Spark in AzureHD, and it has rebuilt Microsoft R Server’s Hadoop integration to leverage Spark as well as MapReduce. VentureBeat reports that Databricks will offer its managed service for Spark on Microsoft Azure later this year.

— SAP, another early adopter of Spark, supports Vora, a connector to SAP HANA.

You get the idea. Spark is deeply embedded in the ecosystem, and it’s foolish to argue that it doesn’t play a central role in the future of analytics.

The Year in Machine Learning (Part Two)

This is the second installment in a four-part review of 2016 in machine learning and deep learning. Part One, here, covered general trends. In Part Two, we review the year in open source machine learning and deep learning projects. Parts Three and Four will cover commercial machine learning and deep learning software and services.

There are thousands of open source projects on the market today, and we cannot cover them all. We’ve selected the most relevant projects based on usage reported in surveys of data scientists, as well as development activity recorded in OpenHub.  In this post, we limit the scope to projects with a non-profit governance structure, and those offered by commercial ventures that do not also provide licensed software. Part Three will include software vendors who offer open source “community” editions together with commercially licensed software.

R and Python maintained their leadership as primary tools for open data science. The Python versus R debate continued amid an emerging consensus that data scientists should consider learning both. R has a stronger library of statistics and machine learning techniques and is agiler when working with small data. Python is better suited to developing applications, and the Python open source license is less restrictive for commercial application development.

Not surprisingly, deep learning frameworks were the most dynamic category, with TensorFlow, Microsoft Cognitive, and MXNet taking leadership away from more mature tools like Caffe and Torch. It’s remarkable that deep learning tools introduced as recently as 2014 now seem long in the tooth.

The R Project

The R user community continued to expand in 2016. It ranked second only to SQL in the 2016 O’Reilly Data Science Salary Survey; first in the KDNuggets poll; and first in the Rexer survey. R ranked fifth in the IEEE Spectrum ranking.

R functionality grew at a rapid pace. In April, Microsoft’s Andrie de Vries reported that there were more than 8,000 packages in CRAN, R’s primary repository for contributed packages. As of mid-December, there are 9,737 packages.  Machine learning packages in CRAN continued to grow in number and functionality.

The R Consortium, a Collaborative Project of the Linux Foundation, made some progress in 2016. IBM and ESRI joined the Consortium, whose membership now also includes Alteryx, Avant, DataCamp, Google, Ketchum Trading, Mango Solutions, Microsoft, Oracle, RStudio, and TIBCO. There are now three working groups and eight funded projects.

Hadley Wickham had a good year. One of the top contributors to the R project, Wickham co-wrote R for Data Science and released tidyverse 1.0.0 in September. In The tidy tools manifesto, Wickham explained the four basic principles to a tidy API.

Max Kuhn, the author of Applied Predictive Modeling and developer of the caret package for machine learning, joined RStudio in November. RStudio previously hired Joseph Rickert away from Microsoft.

AT&T Labs is doing some impressive work with R, including the development of a distributed back-end for out-of-core processing with Hadoop and other data platforms. At the UseR! Conference, Simon Urbanek presented a summary.

It is impossible to enumerate all of the interesting analysis performed in R this year. David Robinson’s analysis of Donald Trump’s tweets resonated; using tidyverse, tidytext, and twitteR, Robinson was able to distinguish between the candidate’s “voice” and that of his staffers on the same account.

On the Revolutions blog, Microsoft’s David Smith surveyed the growing role of women in the R community.

Microsoft and Oracle continued to support enhanced R distributions; we’ll cover these in Part Three of this survey.

Python

Among data scientists surveyed in the 2016 KDNuggets poll, 46% said they use Python for analytics, data mining, data science or machine learning projects in the past twelve months. That figure was up from 30% in 2015, and second only to R. In the 2016 O’Reilly Data Science Salary Survey, Python ranked third behind SQL and R.

Python Software Foundation (PSF) expanded the number and dollar value of its grants. PSF awarded many small grants to groups around the world that promote Python education and training. Other larger grants went to projects such as the design of the Python in Education site, improvements to the packaging ecosystem (see below), support for the Python 3.6 beta 1 release sprint, and support for major Python conferences.

The Python Packaging Authority launched the Warehouse project to replace the existing Python Packaging Index (PyPI.) Goals of the project include updating the visual identity, making packages more discoverable and improving support for package users and maintainers.

PSF released Python 3.6.0 and Python 2.7.13 in December.  The scikit-learn team released Version 0.18 with many enhancements and bug fixes; maintenance release Version 0.18.1 followed soon after that.

Many of the key developments for machine learning in Python were in the form of Python APIs to external packages, such as Spark, TensorFlow, H2O, and Theano. We cover these separately below.

Continuum Analytics expanded its commercial support for Python during the year and added commercially licensed software extensions which we will cover in Part Three.

Apache Software Foundation

There are ten Apache projects with machine learning capabilities. Of these, Spark has the most users, active contributors, commits, and lines of code added. Flink is a close second in active development, although most Flink devotees care more about its event-based streaming than its machine learning capabilities.

Top-Level Projects

There are four top-level Apache projects with machine learning functionality: Spark, Flink, Mahout, and OpenNLP.

Apache Spark

The Spark team delivered Spark 2.0, a major release, and six maintenance releases. Key enhancements to Spark’s machine learning capabilities in this release included additional algorithms in the DataFrames-based API, in PySpark and in SparkR, as well as support for saving and loading ML models and pipelines. The DataFrames-based API is now the primary interface for machine learning in Spark, although the team will continue to support the RDD-based API.

GraphX, Spark’s graph engine, remained static. Spark 2.0 included many other enhancements to Spark’s SQL and Streaming capabilities.

Third parties added 24 machine learning packages to Spark Packages in 2016.

The Spark user community continued to expand. Databricks reported 30% growth in Spark Summit attendees and 240% growth in Spark Meetup members. 18% of respondents to Databricks’ annual user survey reported using Spark’s machine learning library in production, up from 13% in 2015. Among data scientists surveyed in the 2016 KDNuggets poll, 22% said they use Spark; in the 2016 O’Reilly Data Science Salary Survey, 21% of the respondents reported using Spark.

The Databricks survey also showed that 61% of users work with Spark in the public cloud, up from 51% in 2015. As of December 2016, there are Spark services available from each of the major public cloud providers (AWS, Microsoft, IBM and Google), plus value-added managed services for data scientists from Databricks, Qubole, Altiscale and Domino Data.

Apache Flink

dataArtisans’ Mike Winters reviewed Flink’s accomplishments in 2016 without using the words “machine learning.” That’s because Flink’s ML library is still pretty limited, no doubt because Flink’s streaming runtime is the primary user attraction.

While there are many use cases for scoring data streams with predictive models, there are few real-world use cases for training predictive models on data streams. Machine learning models are useful when they generalize to a population, which is only possible when the process that creates the data is in a steady state. If a process is in a steady state, it makes no difference whether you train on batched data or streaming data; the latest event falls into the same mathematical space as previous events. If recent events produce major changes to the model, the process is not in a steady state, so we can’t rely on the model to predict future events.

Flink does not yet support PMML model import, a relatively straightforward enhancement that would enable users to generate predictions on streaming data with models built elsewhere. Most streaming engines support this capability.

There may be use cases where Flink’s event-based streaming is superior to Spark’s micro-batching. For the most part, though, Flink strikes me as an elegant solution looking for a problem to solve.

Apache Mahout

The Mahout team released four double-dot releases. Key enhancements include the Samsara math environment and support for Flink as a back end. Most of the single machine and MapReduce algorithms are deprecated, so what’s left is a library of matrix operators for Spark, H2O, and Flink.

Apache OpenNLP

OpenNLP is a machine learning toolkit for processing natural language text. It’s not dead; it’s just resting.

Incubator Projects

In 2016, two machine learning projects entered the Apache Incubator, while no projects graduated, leaving six in process at the end of the year: SystemML, PredictionIO, MADLib, SINGA, Hivemall, and SAMOA. SystemML and Hivemall are the best bets to graduate in 2017.

Apache SystemML

SystemML is a library of machine learning algorithms that run on Spark and MapReduce, originally developed by IBM Research beginning in 2010. IBM donated the code to Apache in 2015; since then, IBM has committed resources to developing the project. All of the major contributors are IBM employees, which begs the question: what is the point of open-sourcing software if you don’t attract a community of contributors?

The team delivered three releases in 2016, adding algorithms and other features, including deep learning and GPU support. Given the support from IBM, it seems likely that the project will hit Release 1.0 this year and graduate to top-level status.

Usage remains light among people not employed by IBM. There is no “Powered By SystemML” page, which implies that nobody else uses it. IBM added SystemML to BigInsights this year, which expands the potential reach to IBM-loyal enterprises if there are any of those left. It’s possible that IBM uses the software in some of its other products.

Apache PredictionIO

PredictionIO is a machine learning server built on top of an open source stack, including Spark, HBase, Spray, and Elasticsearch. An eponymous startup began work on the project in 2013; Salesforce acquired the company earlier this year and donated the assets to Apache. Apache PredictionIO entered the Apache Incubator in May.

Apache PredictionIO includes many templates for “prebuilt” applications that use machine learning. These include an assortment of recommenders, lead scoring, churn prediction, electric load forecasting, sentiment analysis, and many others.

Since entering the Incubator, the team has delivered several minor releases. Development activity is light, however, which suggests that Salesforce isn’t doing much with this.

Apache SINGA

SINGA is a distributed deep learning project originally developed at the National University of Singapore and donated to Apache in 2015. The platform currently supports feed-forward models, convolutional neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machines, and recurrent neural networks.  It includes a stochastic gradient descent algorithm for model training.

The team has delivered three versions in 2016, culminating with Release 1.0.0 in September. The release number suggests that the team thinks the project will soon graduate to top-level status; they’d better catch up with paperwork, however, since they haven’t filed status reports with Apache in eighteen months.

Apache MADLib

MADLib is a library of machine learning functions that run in PostgreSQL, Greenplum Database and Apache HAWQ (incubating). Work began in 2010 as a collaboration between researchers at UC-Berkeley and data scientists at EMC Greenplum (now Pivotal Software). Pivotal donated the software assets to the Apache Software Foundation in 2015, and the project entered Apache incubator status.

In 2016, the team delivered three minor releases. The active contributor base is tiny, averaging three contributors per month.

According to a survey conducted by the team, most users have deployed the software on Greenplum database. Since Greenplum currently ranks 35th in the DB-Engines popularity ranking and is sinking fast, this project doesn’t have anywhere to go unless the team can port it to a broader set of platforms.

Apache Hivemall

Originally developed by Treasure Data and donated to the Apache Software Foundation, Hivemall is a scalable machine learning library implemented as a collection of Hive UDFs designed to run on Hive, Pig or Spark SQL with MapReduce, Tez or Spark. The team organized in September 2016 and plans an initial release in Q1 2017.

Given the relatively mature state of the code, large installed base for Hive, and high representation of Spark committers on the PMC, Hivemall is a good bet for top-level status in 2017.

Apache SAMOA

SAMOA entered the Apache Incubator two years ago and died. It’s a set of distributed streaming machine learning algorithms that run on top of S4, Storm, and Samza.

As noted above, under Flink, there isn’t much demand for streaming machine learning. S4 is moribund, Storm is old news and Samza is going nowhere; so, you can think of SAMOA as like an Estate Wagon built on an Edsel chassis. Unless the project team wants to port the code to Spark or Flink, this project is toast.

Machine Learning Projects

This category includes general-purpose machine learning platforms that support an assortment of algorithms for classification, regression, clustering and association. Based on reported usage and development activity, we cover H2O, XGBoost, and Weka in this category.

Three additional projects are worth noting, as they offer graphical user interfaces and appeal to business users. KNIME and RapidMiner provide open-source editions of their software together with commercially licensed versions; we cover these in Part Three of this survey. Orange is a project of the Bioinformatics Laboratory, Faculty of Computer and Information Science, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Vowpal Wabbit gets an honorable mention. Known to Kaggleists as a fast and efficient learner, VW’s user base is currently too small to warrant full coverage. The project is now domiciled at Microsoft Research. It will be interesting to see if MSFT does anything with it.

H2O

H2O is an open source machine learning project of H2O.ai, a commercial venture. (We’ll cover H2O.ai’s business accomplishments in Part Three of this report.)

In 2016, the H2O team updated Sparkling Water for compatibility with Spark 2.0. Sparkling Water enables data scientists to combine Spark’s data ingestion and ETL capabilities with H2O machine learning algorithms. The team also delivered the first release of Steam, a component that supports model management and deployment at scale, and a preview of Deep Water for deep learning.

For 2017, H2O.ai plans to add an automated machine learning capability and deliver a production release of Deep Water, with support for TensorFlow, MXNet and Caffe back ends.

According to H2O.ai, H2O more than doubled its user base in 2016.

XGBoost

A project of the University of Washington’s Distributed Machine Learning Common (DMLC), XGBoost is an optimized distributed gradient boosting library used by top data scientists, who appreciate its scalability and accuracy. Tianqi Chen and Carlos Guestrin published a paper earlier this year describing the algorithm. Machine learning startups DataRobot and Dataiku added XGBoost to their platforms in 2016.

Weka

Weka is a collection of machine learning algorithms written in Java, developed at the University of Waikato in New Zealand and distributed under GPU license. Pentaho and RapidMiner include the software in their commercial products.

We include Weka in this review because it is still used by a significant minority of data scientists; 11% of those surveyed in the annual KDnuggets poll said they use the software. However, reported usage is declining rapidly, and development has virtually flatlined in the past few years, which suggests that this project may go the way of the eponymous flightless bird.

Deep Learning Frameworks

We include in this category software whose primary purpose is deep learning. Many general-purpose machine learning packages also support deep learning, but the packages listed here are purpose-built for the task.

Since they were introduced in late 2015, Google’s TensorFlow and Microsoft’s Cognitive Toolkit have rocketed from nothing to leadership in the category. With backing from Amazon and others, MXNet is coming on strong, while Theano and Keras have active communities in the Python world. Meanwhile, older and more mature frameworks, such as Caffe, DL4J, and Torch, are getting buried by the new kids on the block.

Money talks; commercial support matters. It’s a safe bet that projects backed by Google, Microsoft and Amazon will pull away from the pack in 2017.

TensorFlow

TensorFlow is the leading deep learning framework, measured by reported usage or by development activity. Launched in 2015, Google’s deep learning platform went from zero to leadership in record time.

In April, Google released TensorFlow 0.8, with support for distributed processing. The development team shipped four additional releases during the year, with many additional enhancements, including:

  • Python 3.5 support
  • iOS support
  • Microsoft Windows support (selected functions)
  • CUDA 8 support
  • HDFS support
  • k-Means clustering
  • WALS matrix factorization
  • Iterative solvers for linear equations, linear least squares, eigenvalues and singular values

Also in April, DeepMind, Google’s AI research group, announced plans to switch from Torch to TensorFlow.

Google released its image captioning model in TensorFlow in September. The Google Brain team reported that this model correctly identified 94% of the images in the ImageNet 2012 benchmark.

In December, Constellation Research selected TensorFlow as 2016’s best innovation in enterprise software, citing its extensive use in projects throughout Google and strong developer community.

Microsoft Cognitive Toolkit

In 2016, Microsoft rebranded its deep learning framework as Microsoft Cognitive Toolkit (MCT) and released Version 2.0 to beta, with a new Python API and many other enhancements. In VentureBeat, Jordan Novet reports.

At the Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS) Conference in early December, Cray announced that it successfully ran MCT on a Cray XC50 supercomputer with more than 1,000 NVIDIA Tesla P100 GPU accelerators.

Separately, Microsoft and NVIDIA announced a collaborative effort to support MCT on Tesla GPUs in Azure or on-premises, and on the NVIDIA DGX-1 supercomputer with Pascal GPUs.

Theano

Theano, a project of the Montreal Institute for Learning Algorithms at the University of Montreal, is a Python library for computationally intensive scientific investigation. It allows users to efficiently define, optimize and evaluate mathematical expressions with multi-dimensional arrays. (Reference here.) Like CNTK and TensorFlow, Theano represents neural networks as a symbolic graph.

The team released Theano 0.8 in March, with support for multiple GPUs. Two additional double-dot releases during the year added support for CuDNN v.5 and fixed bugs.

MXNet

MXNet, a scalable deep learning library, is another project of the University of Washington’s Distributed Machine Learning Common (DMLC). It runs on CPUs, GPUs, clusters, desktops and mobile phones, and supports APIs for Python, R, Scala, Julia, Matlab, and Javascript.

The big news for MXNet in 2016 was its selection by Amazon Web Services. Craig Matsumoto reports; Serdar Yegulalp explains; Eric David dives deeper; Martin Heller reviews.

Keras

Keras is a high-level neural networks library that runs on TensorFlow or Theano. Originally authored by Google’s Francois Chollet, Keras had more than 200 active contributors in 2016.

In the Huffington Post, Chollet explains how Keras differs from other DL frameworks. Short version: Keras abstracts deep learning architecture from the computational back end, which made it easy to port from Theano to TensorFlow.

DL4J

Updated, based on comments from Skymind CEO Chris Nicholson.

Deeplearning4j (DL4J) is a project of Skymind, a commercial venture. IT is an open-source, distributed deep-learning library written for Java and Scala. Integrated with Hadoop and Spark, DL4J runs on distributed GPUs and CPUs. Skymind benchmarks well against Caffe, TensorFlow, and Torch.

While Amazon, Google, and Microsoft promote deep learning on their cloud platforms, Skymind seeks to deliver deep learning on standard enterprise architecture, for organizations that want to train models on premises. I’m skeptical that’s a winning strategy, but it’s a credible strategy. Skymind landed a generous seed round in September, which should keep the lights on long enough to find out. Intel will like a deep learning framework that runs on Xeon boxes, so there’s a possible exit.

Skymind proposes to use Keras for a Python API, which will make the project more accessible to data scientists.

Caffe

Caffe, a project of the Berkeley Vision and Learning Center (BVLC) is a deep learning framework released under an open source BSD license.  Stemming from BVLC’s work in vision and image recognition, Caffe’s core strength is its ability to model a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Caffe is written in C++.  Users interact with Caffe through a Python API or through a command line interface.  Deep learning models trained in Caffe can be compiled for operation on most devices, including Windows.

I don’t see any significant news for Caffe in 2016.

Big Analytics Roundup (August 15, 2016)

In the second quarter of 2015, Hortonworks lost $1.38 for every dollar of revenue. In the second quarter of 2016, HDP lost $1.46 for every dollar of revenue. So I guess they aren’t making it up on volume.

On the Databricks blog, Jules Damji summarizes Spark news from the past two weeks.

AWS Launches Kinesis Analytics

Amazon Web Services announces the availability of Amazon Kinesis Analytics, an SQL interface to streaming data. AWS’ Ryan Nienhuis explains how to use it in the first of a two-part series.

The biggest threat to Spark Streaming doesn’t come from the likes of Flink, Storm, Samza or Apex. It comes from popular message brokers like Apache Kafka and AWS Kinesis, who can and will add analytics to move up the value chain.

Intel Freaks Out

Intel announces an agreement to acquire Nervana Systems, a 28-month-old startup working on hardware and software solutions for deep learning. Re/code reports a price tag of $408 million. The customary tech media unicorn story storm ensues. (h/t Oliver Vagner)

Intel says it plans to use Nervana’s software to improve the Math Kernel Library and market the Nervana Engine alongside the Xeon Phi processor. Nervana neon is YADLF — Yet Another Deep Learning Framework — that ranked twelfth in usage among deep learning frameworks in KDnuggets’ recent poll. According to Nervana, neon benchmarks well against Caffe; but then, so does CNTK.

Do special-purpose chips for deep learning have legs? Obviously, Intel thinks so. The headline on that recent Wired story about Google’s deep learning chip — Time for Intel to Freak Out — looks prescient. That said, the history of computing isn’t kind to special-purpose hardware; does anyone remember Thinking Machines? If Intel has any smarts at all, it will take steps to ensure that its engine works with the deep learning frameworks people actually want to use, like TensorFlow, Theano, and Caffe.

Cloud Computing Drivers

Tony Safoian describes five trends driving the growth of cloud computing: better security, machine learning and big data, containerization, mobile and IoT. Cloud security hasn’t actually improved — your data was always safer in the cloud than it was on premises. What has changed is the perception of security, and the growing sense that IT sentiments against cloud have little to do with security and a lot to do with rent-seeking and turf.

On the other points, Safoian misses the big picture — due to the costs of data movement, the cloud is best suited to machine learning and big data when data sources are also in the cloud. As organizations host an increasing number of operational applications in the cloud, it makes sense to manage and analyze the data there as well.

Machine Learning for Social Good

Microsoft offers a platform to predict scores in weather-interrupted cricket matches.

Shameless Commerce

In a podcast, Ben Lorica interviews John Akred on the use of agile techniques in data science. Hey, someone should write a book about that.

Speaking of books, I plan to publish snippets from my new book, Disruptive Analytics, every Wednesday over the next couple of months.

DA Cover

Explainers

— Uber’s Vinoth Chandar explains why you rarely need sub-second latency for streaming analytics.

— Microsoft’s David Smith explains how to tune Apache Spark for faster analysis with Microsoft R Server.

— Databricks’ Jules Damji explains how to use SparkSession with Spark 2.0.

— On the Cloudera Engineering Blog, Devadutta Ghat et. al. explain analytics and BI on S3 with Apache Impala. Short version: you’re going to need more nodes.

— In the first of a three-part series, IBM’s Elias Abou Haydar explains how to score health data with Apache Spark.

— Basho’s Pavel Hardak explains how to use the Riak Connector for Apache Spark.

— On YouTube, Alluxio founder and CEO Haoyuan Li explains Alluxio.

— Pat Ferrel explains the roadmap for Mahout. According to OpenHUB, Mahout shows a slight uptick in developer activity, from zero to two active contributors.

— Cisco’s Saravanan Subramanian explains the features of streaming frameworks, including Spark, Flink, Storm, Samza, and Kafka Streams. A pretty good article overall, except that he omits Apache Apex, a top-level Apache project.

— Frances Perry explains what the Apache Beam has accomplished in the first six months of incubation.

Perspectives

— Curt Monash opines about Databricks and Spark. He notes that some people are unhappy that Databricks hasn’t open sourced 100% of its code, which is just plain silly.

— IBM’s Vijay Bommireddipalli touts IBM’s contributions to Spark 2.0.

— Mellanox’ Gillad Shainer touts the performance advantage of EDR InfiniBand versus Intel Omni-Path. Mellanox sells InfiniBand host bus adapters and network switches.(h/t Bob Muenchen)

— Kan Nishida runs a cluster analysis on R packages in Google BigQuery and produces something incomprehensible.

— Pivotal’s Jagdish Mirani argues that network-attached storage (NAS) may be a good alternative to direct-attached storage (DAS). Coincidentally, Pivotal’s parent company EMC sells NAS devices.

Open Source News

— Apache Flink announces two releases. Release 1.1.0 includes new connectors, the Table API for SQL operations, enhancements to the DataStream API, a Scala API for Complex Event Processing and a new metrics system. Release 1.1.1 fixes a dependency issue.

— Apache Kafka announces Release 0.10.0.1, with bug fixes.

— Apache Samza releases Samza 0.10.1 with new features, performance improvements, and bug fixes.

— Apache Storm delivers version 1.0.2, with bug fixes.

Commercial Announcements

— AWS releases EMR 5.0, with Spark 2.0, Hive 2.1 and Tez as the default execution engine for Hive and Pig. EMR is the first Hadoop distribution to support Spark 2.0.

— Fractal Analytics partners with KNIME.

— MapR announces a $50 million venture round led by the Australian Government Future Fund.

Big Analytics Roundup (August 8, 2016)

So, Apple acquires Turi for $200 million. Hopefully, Apple did not pay for brand equity.

Bridget Botelho argues that businesses must either disrupt or be disrupted, and outlines the role of machine learning. Someone should write a book about that.

Conference Announcements

— Flink Forward announces the schedule for its second annual event, to be held September 12-14 in Berlin.

— Databricks announces the agenda for Spark Summit Europe 2016 in Brussels (October 25-27)

Apple Buys GraphLab Dato Turi

Geekwire breaks the story, reporting a purchase price of $200 million. According to TechCrunch, Turi notified customers that its products would no longer be available. Apple adds Turi to the portfolio of machine learning startups it has acquired in the past year, including Emotient, Perceptio, and VocalIQ. More reporting here.

GraphLab started in 2009 as an open source project led by Carlos Guestrin of Carnegie Mellon. (According to OpenHub Guestrin never contributed any code.) In May 2013, Guestrin raised $6.75M to start an eponymous venture to provide commercial support for GraphLab. In October 2014, GraphLab announced the availability of GraphLab Create, a commercially licensed software product. Contributions to the open source project actually ended in 2013; while the code remains on GitHub, the project is dead.

GraphLab changed its name to Dato in January 2015. They should have googled the name; at the time, the top links in a search included Dato Foland, a gay porn star, and Datto Inc, a data backup and recovery company in Connecticut. The latter proved problematic; Datto sued, forcing Dato to rebrand as Turi earlier this month.

Turi’s open source SFrame project remains for those who think introducing another file system into the mix is a smart thing to do.

Teradata: 9 Straight Quarters of Declining Product Revenue

For the second quarter of 2016, declining data warehouse giant Teradata reports an 11% decline in product revenue compared to Q2 2015. (Product revenue includes revenue from licensing software and hardware — boxes with the Teradata brand.) Maintenance revenue increased slightly, which means that customers aren’t pulling the plug on Teradata databases as fast as they did last year. Consulting revenue declined by 1%, which casts doubt on TDC’s stated strategy to become a services powerhouse.

Screen Shot 2016-08-08 at 10.38.16 AM

Count me as skeptical about the merits of that plan. Teradata’s consulting revenue remains highly correlated with product revenue; in other words, if Teradata can’t sell its boxes, it’s not going to sell billable hours for consultants to implement those boxes. Teradata is not a credible competitor in the market for consulting-led solutions; companies like Oracle, IBM and SAS have a twenty-year head start.

Since Teradata performed better than “expectations”, Wall Street rewarded the stock with a bounce above $30.  It’s a dead-cat bounce. As the Wall Street Journal notes, companies routinely game analyst expectations. TDC currently trades at 32 times trailing earnings, well above its peers; moreover, its peers are growing rather than declining.

Explainers

— Kaarthik Sivashanmugam explains how to develop Apache Spark applications in .NET with Mobius.

— On the Cloudera Engineering blog, Devadutta Ghat et. al. explain the latest performance improvements in Impala 2.6.

— Parsey McParseface now has 40 cousins. On the Google Research Blog, Chris Alberti et. al. explain.

— Ujjwal Ratan explains how to use Amazon Machine Learning to predict patient readmission.

Perspectives

— Curt Monash offers his assessment of Spark. Highlights:

  • Spark replaces MapReduce, in particular for data transformation.
  • Spark is becoming the default platform for machine learning.
  • Spark SQL is OK as an adjunct for other analysis.
  • Spark Streaming is doing well, but there are challengers. (See below).
  • Databricks’ managed service for Spark has more than 200 subscribers.

— Serdar Yegulalp deploys the tired old “pure streaming versus microbatch” argument to claim that Apache Apex, Heron, Apache Flink and Onyx are “contenders” versus Spark. Someone should show him this graph:

Screen Shot 2016-07-18 at 8.26.11 AM

— In Datanami, Alex Woodie profiles Flink.

— Vance McCarthy touts MapR’s Spyglass Initiative for analytics on the MapR Converged Data Platform.

— Trevor Jones describes Microsoft Azure’s big data tools.

— Sam Dean champions Sparkling Water, H2O’s interface to Spark.

Commercial Announcements

— Dataiku announces the release of Data Science Studio 3.1, with five machine learning back ends and a visual coding interface (which it labels “code-free”).  Dave Ramel reports.

— John Snow Labs announces it will deliver curated data in Parquet format.

— Lexalytics announces the availability of its Semantria text analytics software on Azure.

Big Analytics Roundup (July 25, 2016)

We have some more summer reading this week; plus, Splice Machine announces availability of its open source Community Edition, and Google launches two new machine learning APIs. There are so many Spark stories I’ve created a special section for them. Plus we have the usual explainers, perspectives, and news.

Quant headhunter Linda Burtch repeats her survey of working analysts in her network. Preference for using SAS has steadily declined over the three years she has conducted the poll; this year a clear majority chose R or Python over SAS. Preference for open source correlates with education; the more you know, the less likely you are to use SAS.

Oracle, IBM, SAP, and Microsoft have all reported Q2 revenue and earnings, but Teradata is still crunching the numbers. I’ll do a general earnings roundup when TDC gets around to reporting its numbers. TDC’s stock price has outperformed the others since June 30, which suggests the market expects a good second quarter. Meanwhile, TDC acquires another consultancy and reveals who bought Aprimo.

Summer Reading

Adrian Colyer lists his five favorite papers from the past several months and outlines his philosophy, which you must read. And here is another link to last week’s top paper on data bazaars versus data cathedrals.

Splice Machine Shifts to Open Core

Hadoop-based RDBMS vendor Splice Machine announces general availability for its open source community edition and offers a sandbox hosted on AWS.  Sam Dean approves; Andrew Brust reports; Dave Ramel explains. Jack Germain describes Splice Machine’s changing business model.

Spark Stories

— Databricks’ Spark survey is still accepting responses. Go and fill it out if you have not done so already.

— The Spark PMC has voted favorably on a release candidate for Spark 2.0, which is now in packaging for general availability.

— On the Databricks blog, Jules Damji corrals Spark news from the past two weeks.

— Alex Woodie touts LevyxSpark, an enhanced Spark distribution based on open source Apache Spark. LevyxSpark includes some open source enhancements, plus Levyx Helium, an SSD-based key-value store.

— In a webcast, Alexander Ulanov summarizes options for deep learning on Spark.

— Sam Weaver explains how to use the new MongoDB connector for Spark.

Explainers

— Nita Dembla and Gopal Vijayaraghavan explain improvements in Hive 2.1.

— Siddharth Anand introduces Apache Airflow (Incubating), a platform to author, schedule, and monitor DAGs. Sounds like Apache Beam.

— Data Artisans’ Stephan Ewan explains savepoints in Apache Flink.

Perspectives

— Jack Clark profiles Google’s land grab in deep learning. Short version: TensorFlow is blowing away Caffe, Torch, Theano, dl4j, CNTK, and DSSTNE.

— Greg Satell theorizes about Google’s open source strategy as if a “razor and blades” strategy is something new and brilliant.

— In Fortune, Barb Darrow profiles cloud computing’s disruptive impact.

— Sam Dean confuses machine learning with artificial intelligence.

— Syncsort’s Paige Roberts interviews Dr. Ellen Friedman.

— Drew Breunig poses a theory about the business implications of machine learning.

— BuzzFeed’s Adam Kelleher attempts to explain bias, fails.

— IBM exec Rob Thomas co-authors a blog about machine learning. It’s about what you would expect from an IBM exec.

Open Source News

— Open source columnar storage engine Apache Kudu graduates to top-level status.

— Apache Chukwa announces Release 0.8, with security bug fixes, FWIW. Chukwa captures logs from distributed systems for monitoring and analysis. No, I never heard of it either.

Commercial Announcements

— Google announces open beta for its Cloud Natural Language and Cloud Speech APIs.

Hardware News

— Inspur, which claims to be China’s largest server manufacturer, announces availability of the Memory1 line of servers for big analytics. Inspur uses high-capacity flash DIMMs and memory expansion software to deliver up to 2TB of memory per server and up to 80TB per rack.

— Startup Wave Computing announces plans for a family of deep learning computers. Good luck to them. The history of computing isn’t kind to special purpose machines, which tend to eventually get buried by general purpose machines.

Funding News

— Redis Labs lands a $14 million “C” round led by Bain Capital and Carmel Ventures. Redis claims 6,200 enterprise customers and 55,000 accounts for its cloud service.

— Sift Security emerges from stealth, announces $3.25 million in angel funding. Sift uses graph analytics running on Spark and TitanDB to identify linked threats and incidents.

Big Analytics Roundup (June 20, 2016)

Light news this week — everyone is catching up from Spark Summit, it seems. We have a nice crop of explainers, and some thoughts on IBM’s “Data Science Experience” announcement.

On his personal blog, Michael Malak recaps the Spark Summit.

Teradata releases a Spark connector for Aster, so Teradata is ready for 2014.

On KDnuggets, Gregory Piatetsky publishes a follow-up to results of his software poll, this time analyzing which tools tend to be used together.

In Datanami, Alex Woodie asks if Spark is overhyped, quoting extensively from some old guy. Woodie notes that it’s difficult to track the number of commercial vendors who have incorporated Spark into their products. Actually, it isn’t:

Screen Shot 2016-06-20 at 12.24.07 PM

And yes, there are a few holdouts in the lower left quadrants.

CFPs and Competitions

Flink Forward 2016, Berlin, September 12-14 (due June 30)

Spark Summit Europe, Brussels, October 25-27 (closing date July 1)

Parkinson’s Progression Markers Institute (PPMI) 2016 Challenge (due September 7)

IBM Data Science Experience

Unless you attended the recent Spark Summit with a bag over your head, you’re aware that IBM announced something. An IBM executive wants to know if I heard the announcement.  The answer is yes, I saw the press release and the planted stories, but IBM’s announcements are — shall we say — aspirational: IBM is announcing a concept. The service isn’t in limited release, and IBM has not revealed a date when the service will be available.

Screen Shot 2016-06-20 at 11.17.54 AM

It’s hard to evaluate a service that IBM hasn’t defined. Media reports and the press release are inconsistent — all stories mention Spark, Jupyter, RStudio and R; some stories mention H2O, others mention Cplex and other products. Insiders at IBM are in the dark about what components will be included in the first release.

Evaluating the release conceptually:

  • IBM already offers a managed service for Spark, it’s less flexible than Databricks or Qubole, and not as rich as Altiscale or Domino Data.
  • Unlike Qubole and Databricks, IBM plans to use Jupyter notebooks and RStudio rather than creating an integrated development environment of its own.
  • R and RStudio in the cloud are already available in AWS, Azure and Domino. If IBM plans to use a vanilla R distribution, it will be less capable than Microsoft’s enhanced R distribution available in Azure.
  • A managed service for H2O is a good thing, if it happens. There is no formal partnership between IBM and H2O.ai, and insiders at H2O seem surprised by IBM’s announcement. Of course, it’s already possible to implement H2O in any IaaS cloud environment, and H2O has users on AWS, Azure and Google Cloud platforms already.

Bottom line: IBM’s “Data Science Experience” is a marketing wrapper around an existing service, with the possibility of adding new services that may or may not be as good as offerings already in the marketplace. We’ll take another look when IBM actually releases something.

Explainers

— Davies Liu and Herman van Hovell explain SQL subqueries in Spark 2.0.

— On the MapR blog, Ellen Friedman explains SQL queries on mixed schema data with Apache Drill.

— Bill Chambers publishes the first of three parts on writing Spark applications in Databricks.

— In TechRepublic, Hope Reese explains machine learning to smart people. For everyone else, there’s this.

— Carla Schroder explains how Verizon Labs built a 600-node bare metal Mesos cluster in two weeks.

— On YouTube, H2O.ai’s Arno Candel demonstrates TensorFlow deep learning on an H2O cluster.

— Jessica Davis compiles a listicle of Tech Giants who embrace open source.

— Microsoft’s Dmitry Pechyoni reports results from an analysis of 600 million taxi rides using Microsoft R Server on a single instance of the Data Science Virtual Machine in Azure.

Perspectives

— InformationWeek’s Jessica Davis wonders if Microsoft will keep LinkedIn’s commitment to open source. LinkedIn’s donations to open source have less to do with its “commitment”, and more to do with its understanding that software is not its core business.

— Arthur Cole wonders if open source software will come to rule the enterprise data center as a matter of course. The answer is: it’s already happening.

Open Source Announcements

— Apache Beam (incubating) announces version 0.1.0. Key bits: SDK for Java and runners for Apache Flink, Apache Spark and Google Cloud Dataflow.

— Apache Mahout announces version 0.12.2, a maintenance release.

— Apache SystemML (incubating) announces release 0.10.0.

Commercial Announcements

— Altiscale announces the Real-Time Edition of Altiscale Insight Cloud, which includes Apache HBase and Spark Streaming.

— Databricks announces availability of its managed Spark service on AWS GovCloud (US).

— Qubole announces QDS HBase-as-a-Service on AWS.

Big Analytics Roundup (May 16, 2016)

This week we have more insight into Spark 2.0, scheduled for release just before Spark Summit 2016. (Yes, I’m going.) Also, kudos to BI-on-Hadoop startup AtScale for a new round of funding; Amazon releases YADLF (Yet Another Deep Learning Framework); and there are a number of new faces at H2O.ai.

Plus, we have an extended review of the Palantir story.

Buzzfeed on Palantir

Last week, I deemed Buzzfeed’s story on Palantir too dumb to link. (“Forget it, Jake. It’s Buzzfeed.”) Buzzfeed “news” reporter William Alden, who was all over a story about maggots in Facebook lunches, breathlessly mines a cache of “secret internal documents” and discovers:

  • Palantir expects employee turnover of around 20% for 2016.
  • Palantir lost some clients.
  • Palantir books more work than it bills.

Does Palantir have an employee turnover problem?  No. A 20% turnover rate is slightly above the 17% reported for all industries in 2015, and about on track for Silicon Valley. (There are companies in SV with 100% turnover rates.) On Glassdoor, employees give Palantir high marks.

Does Palantir have a client retention problem? Not exactly. The story cites four clients — American Express, Coca-Cola, Kimberley-Clark and Nasdaq — who engaged Palantir to conduct a pilot, then decided not to proceed with a long-term contract. In other words, lost sales and not cancelled contracts. The document Buzzfeed obtained is Palantir’s won/lost analysis, which shows that the company is attempting to learn from its lost sales.

Does Palantir have a revenue problem? No. Palantir’s 2015 revenue was up 50% from the previous year. Buzzfeed obsesses over the difference between Palantir’s bookings of $1.7 billion and its revenue of $420 million. A high book-to-bill ratio  is typical for consultancies that pursue large multi-year projects; it is a sign of strong demand for the company’s services. Under GAAP accounting, companies can accrue revenue only as work is performed, even if they bill the work in advance. Note that consulting giant Accenture’s bookings exceed its revenue for its most recent quarter.

Does Palantir have a profitability problem? Possibly. Buzzfeed reports that the company lost $80 million last year on revenue of $420 million. Consulting margins tend to be fairly high, so a loss means that Palantir is “investing” in a lot of unbillable work. It’s hard to say if these “investments” will pay off. Palantir closed another round of funding in December, 2015, so people with more and better information than Buzzfeed obviously think they will, and are backing up their belief with cash.

By the way, you know who has an actual revenue problem? Buzzfeed.

Roger Peng attempts to draw lessons for data scientists from the Buzzfeed story, without questioning its premises. He should stick to Biostatistics.

Spark 2.0

— Databricks announces preview of Apache Spark 2.0 on Databricks Community Edition.

— From last week: Reynold Xin explains what’s new in Spark 2.0.

— Dave Ramel summarizes the new features, including faster SQL; consolidation of the Dataset and DataFrame APIs; support for ANSI (2003) SQL; and Structured Streaming, an integrated view of tables and streams.

— Now that Spark 2.0 is in preview, MapR offers Spark 1.6.1.

Explainers

— Four from Adrian Colyer:

— Richard Williamson explains how to build a streaming prediction engine with Spark, MADlib, Kudu and Impala.

— On the Cloudera Vision blog, Santosh Kumar explains Hive-on-Spark.

— DataStax’ Dani Traphagen explains data processing with Spark and Cassandra.

— In ZDNet, Andrew Brust explains Microsoft’s R strategy, and gets it right.

Perspectives

— For a planted article in Linux.com, Pam Baker interviews IBM’s Mike Breslin, who answer questions nobody is asking about using Spark and Cloudant.

— Joyce Wells recaps a presentation by Booz Allen’s Jair Aguirre, who touts Apache Drill.

— Alex Woodie attends the Apache: Big Data 2016 conference and discovers open source projects.

— In Business Insider, Sam Shead describes FBLearnerFlow, a workbench for machine learning and AI.

— Leslie D’Monte describes some ways companies use machine learning in their operations.

Open Source Announcements

— Google announces release to open source of SyntaxNet, a framework for natural language understanding. Included in the release: an English parser dubbed Parsey McParseface. Journalists respond to the latter like dogs to a squirrel.

— Amazon releases yet another deep learning framework, this one branded as “Deep Scalable Sparse Tensor Network Engine (DSSTNE)” or “Destiny”. Stephanie Condon reports.

— Salesforce donates PredictionIO to Apache.

— Apache Storm announces two new maintenance releases:

  • Storm 0.10.1 has bug fixes.
  • Storm 1.0.1 has performance improvements and bug fixes.

— Apache Flink announces Release 1.0.3, with bug fixes and improved documentation.

— Apache Apex pushes a release to resolve a security issue.

Commercial Announcements

— BI-on-Hadoop startup AtScale announces an $11 million “B” round. Media coverage here.

— H2O.ai announces new hires with a strong orientation towards visualization, suggesting the company plans to add a more robust user interface to its best-in-class machine learning engine.

Big Analytics Roundup (April 18, 2016)

In hard news this week, Storm hits a milestone with Release 1.0, Google releases TensorFlow 0.8 with distributed computing support, and DataStax announces DataStax Enterprise Graph. And, following on NVIDIA’s DGX-1 announcement last week there are a number of items on Deep Learning featured below.

Deep Learning

— Adrian Colyer summarizes a paper that summarizes 900 other papers on Deep Learning.

— Data Science Central compiles a slew of links on Deep Learning.

— Nicole Hemsoth interviews NVIDIA Veep Marc Hamilton, who ruminates on the convergence of supercomputing and Deep Learning.

Explainers

— On the Pivotal Big Data blog, Alexey Grischchenko explains what’s up with Apache Hawq, the SQL-on-Hadoop-and-Greenplum engine that is now an Apache Incubator project. According to OpenHub, there’s a lot of activity on Hawq, and contributions are up sharply since it went Apache.

— In KDnuggets, Microsoft’s Brandon Rohrer publishes a handy pocket guide to data science.

— Nicholas A. Perez explains custom streaming sources in Spark.

— Ian Pointer explains Apache Beam, and how it aspires to be the uber-API.

— Abie Reifer explains Microsoft Azure HDInsight.

— Yong Feng of IBM’s Spark Technology Center explains results of a test run with Spark on Mesos.

— Gopal Wunnava explains geospatial intelligence with SparkR on Amazon EMR.

— IBM’s Fred Reiss explains SystemML, for those who missed his presentation at Spark Summit East.

— For masochistic sabremetricians, Nick Amato explains baseball statistics with Hive and Pig.

Perspectives

— Serdar Yegulalp reviews Apache Storm 1.0. He likes it.

— DataArtisans’ Kostas Tzoumas explains counting in streams, then touts Flink.

— Timothy Prickett Morgan reports on HPE’s efforts to put Spark on a Superdome. Results are interesting. But as with IBM running Spark on a mainframe, such efforts overlook a key benefit of Hadoop and Spark: the ability to avoid dealing with the likes of HPE and IBM.

— Katharine Kearnan interviews Nick Pentreath, one of the two Spark Committers IBM has hired. He predicts that in Spark 2.0, the ML pipeline API approaches parity with the MLlib API. Interestingly, he doesn’t expect a lot from SparkR.

— In Forbes, Chris Wilder recaps his visit to Google Cloud Platform NEXT 2016.

— Andrew Brust summarizes Hortonworks’ recent announcements, sees an emerging duopoly of Cloudera and Hortonworks. I’m not inclined to dismiss MapR and AWS so easily.

— Craig Stedman comments on Pivotal’s exit from the Hadoop distribution market, quotes some old guy wondering how much longer IBM will keep BigInsights alive. My take on Pivotal: honestly, I thought they exited a year ago.

— Cloud platform Altiscale’s Raymie Stata surveys Hadoop’s history, sees movement to the cloud.

— James Nunns wonders if the top Hadoop distributors can steal the show from Spark at Hadoop Summit 2016. If you count the number of times the word “Spark” appears in Hortonworks’ announcement, the answer is no.

— Ajay Khanna opines that absent data quality and metadata management, your data lake will turn into a data swamp.

— Nick Bishop interviews MSFT’s research chief, who assures him that AI is too stupid to wipe us out. I worry more about the chemtrails.

Open Source Announcements

— Apache Storm announces Release 1.0.0, with many enhancements. According to OpenHub, Storm is picking up steam, with 127 active contributors in the past 12 months.

— Google announces TensorFlow 0.8, with distributed computing support and new libraries for user-defined distributed models.

— Apache Mahout announces release of Mahout 0.12.0, with Flink bindings to the Samsara engine. Contributors from DataArtisans did most of the work, as most other contributors have long since exited this project.

Commercial Announcements

— DataStax announces DataStax Enterprise Graph (DSE Graph), built on Apache Cassandra and Apache Tinkerpop (a graph computing framework.) A year ago, Datastax acquired Aurelius, the commercial venture behind Titan, an open source distributed graph database; Titan uses Cassandra as a back end. DSE Graph includes extensions found in DataStax Enterprise, including security, search, analytics and monitoring tools. Alex Handy reports.

— Databricks announces new content for its Community Edition:

— Hortonworks previews HDP 2.4.2. Key bits:

  • Spark 1.6.1.
  • Spark SQL certified with ODBC.
  • Bug fixes for Spark/Oozie connection for Kerberos-enabled clusters.
  • Spark Streaming with Apache Kafka in a Kerberos-enabled cluster.
  • Spark SQL with ORC performance improvements.
  • Final technical preview of Apache Zeppelin with Kerberos, LDAP and identity propagation.

— Hortonworks also announces that Pivotal HDP is officially dead. Pivotal announces nothing.

— Teradata announces that its Think Big subsidiary is expanding its data lake and managed service offerings using Apache Spark. This is good news for the eight consultants at Think Big with Spark credentials, as it means less time spent on the bench. Meanwhile, Think Big contributes a distributed K-Modes in PySpark to open source, the first such contribution since 2014. For some reason, they did not contribute it to Spark packages.

— Atigeo, a “compassionate technology company”, announces that is has added Spark 1.6 to its xPatterns platform.

— Lucidworks announces release of Lucidworks View, a component that simplifies development of applications on Solr and Spark.

— DataRPM, “Cognitive Data Science” company with very little money announces partnership with Tamr, a data integration company with lots of money.

Big Analytics Roundup (April 11, 2016)

Top story of the week is NVIDIA’s new DGX-1 deep learning chip; scroll down for more on that.

We have three roundups from Strata + Hadoop World, Rashomon style:

  • Alex Woodie reports six takeaways: Kafka, Spark, Hadoop, Cloud, machine learning, mainframes.
  • Jessica Davis recalls four things: comedian Paula Poundstone, MapR, public data sets, AI.
  • Nik Rouda recaps five things: Spark, machine learning, data warehousing, user interfaces, cloud.

— H2O.ai CTO and co-founder Cliff Click departs H2O, joins Neurensic, a firm that specializes in compliance analytics. Neurensic has a team of surname-eschewing executives that is surprisingly large considering it has no visible funding.

— Machine learning startup Context Relevant announces the appointment of Joseph Polverari as CEO, replacing board member Chris Kelley, who replaced founder Stephen Purpura in July, 2015, a month after the latter wrote a meditation on failure. Kelley’s major accomplishment: firing people. Appears that Context Relevant isn’t the next unicorn.

— One of the 76 IBM executives with the title of “CTO” touts cognitive computing. My take:

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— Forrester publishes its 2016 “Wave” for Big Data Streaming Analytics. You can go here and buy it for $2,495, get a free copy here, or just look at the picture below.

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— Spiderbook’s Aman Naimat examines data gleaned by trolling through billions of publicly available documents, identifies 2,680 companies that are using Hadoop at any level of maturity, and another 3,500 that are just learning. That’s out of a total universe of 500,000 companies worldwide. I’m thinking that trolling through billions of public documents may understate the actual incidence of Hadoop usage.

— Crowdflower, a data enrichment platform, surveys data scientists and publishes the results. The report does not disclose how data scientists were identified and sampled, which is key to interpreting surveys like this. Respondents report that they spend a lot of time mucking around with data, which won’t surprise anyone, since Crowdflower sells a service that helps data scientists spend less time mucking with data.

NVIDIA Unveils Deep Learning Chip

— NVIDIA announces June availability for the DGX-1, a deep learning supercomputer on a chip. The DGX-1 includes eight Tesla P100 GPUs, each of which is 12X faster than NVIDIA’s previous benchmark. For $129K you get the throughput of 250 CPU-based servers.

— NVIDIA also reveals a Deep Learning SDK with Deep Learning primitives, math libraries, tools for multi-GPU communication, a CUDA toolkit and DIGITS, a model training system. The system works with popular Deep Learning frameworks like Caffe, CNTK, TensorFlow and Theano.

— Selected media reports:

— MIT Technology Review interviews NVIDIA CEO Jen-Hsun Huang.

Explainers

— Ian Pointer explains Structured Streaming, coming up in Spark 2.0.

— Till Rohrmann introduces Complex Event Processing (CEP) with Flink.

— Maxime Beauchemin explains Caravel, Airbnb’s data exploration platform.

— LinkedIn’s Akshay Rai explains Dr. Elephant, a newly open-sourced self-service performance tuning package for Hadoop and Spark.

— In a guest post on the Cloudera Engineering Blog, engineers from Wargaming.net explain how they built their real-time recommendation engine with Spark, Kafka, HBase and Drools.

— Katrin Leinweber et. al. explain how to analyze an assay of bacteria-induced biofilm formation the freshwater diatom Achnanthidium minutissimum with KNIME. In case you’re wondering, Achnanthidium minutissimum is a kind of algae.

Perspectives

— On LinkedIn, George Hill of The Cyclist nicely critiques the 2011 McKinsey Big Data report, offering a point by point assessment.

— Mauricio Prinzlau of Cloudwards.net opines, without data, that the five languages paving the future of machine learning are MATLAB/Octave, R, Python, “Java-family/C-family” and Extreme Learning Machines (ELM). What was that last one again? Personally, I’ve never seen anyone lump Java and C into a single category, but whatever.

— In InfoWorld, “internationally recognized industry expert and thought leader” David Linthicum ventures into the machine learning discussion by arguing that it’s mostly BS.

— John Dunn demonstrates his ignorance of fraud by asking if machine learning can help banks detect it. As if they haven’t been doing that for years. Also, the “hard decline” he describes at the beginning of the article is rare; most false positives produce “soft declines,”, where the merchant is asked to request identification or speak with the call center.

— In IBT, Ian Allison wonders if financial analysts will lose their jobs to intelligent trading machines. If he watched Billions, he would know that financial analysts spend their time procuring inside information.

— Timo Elliott argues that BI is dead. I have to wonder if it was ever alive.

— Confluent CTO Neha Narkhede opines on stream processing. She’s in favor of it.

— Brandon Butler interviews AWS’ Matt Wood, who chats about competing with Google and Microsoft.

— On Forbes, Robert Hof interviews Cloudera CEO Tom Reilly.

Open Source Announcements

— Qubole releases SQL optimizer Quark to open source.

— Flink releases version 1.0.1, a maintenance release.

— Apache Lens, a “unified analytics interface,” releases version 2.5.0 to beta.

— Airbnb open sources Caravel, a data exploration package.

— Apache Tajo announces Release 0.11.2, which should please its user.

— LinkedIn releases Dr. Elephant to open source.

Commercial Announcements

— Databricks announces the agenda for Spark Summit 2016 in SFO.

— Cloudera announces Cloudera Enterprise 5.7. New analytic bits include Hive-on-Spark GA, support for the HBase-Spark module, support for Spark 1.6 and support for Impala 2.5.

— MapR announces availability of Apache Drill 1.6 as the unified SQL layer for the MapR Converged Data Platform.

Big Analytics Roundup (April 4, 2016)

Strata + Hadoop World sparks a number of commercial announcements: AtScale has a new release, Microsoft previews R Server on HDInsight, and IBM puts Spark on a mainframe, FWIW. We also have a nice harvest of explainers and perspectives.

Slides from Strata available here.

The folks at Domino Data ask: Is XGBoost 10X faster than H2O? We’ll never know the answer, since they took down the post. I’m guessing the answer is “no.”

Screen Shot 2016-04-04 at 10.47.32 AM

Databricks offers a collection of popular blog posts on Apache Spark as an eBook.

Explainers

On the Google Cloud Big Data Blog, Eric Anderson and Marian Dvorsky compare autoscaling in Dataflow/Beam to Spark and Hadoop. (h/t William Vambenepe)

Miles Yucht and Reynold Xin explain DeepSpark, a convolutional neural network that automates software development processes, such as writing test cases, fixing bugs and so forth.

Databricks’ Jules Damji explains how to process JSON data with Spark Datasets and DataFrames.

On the Airbnb engineering blog, Ricardo Bion explains how to scale data science with R.

Eduardo Ariño De La Rubia explains how The Climate Corporation created a high-throughput data science machine.

DataArtisans’ Kostas Tzoumas explains Flink internals, and how Flink counts elements in streams.

On the Insight Data Engineering blog, Daniel Blazevski explains Flink quadtrees.

H2O.ai’s Erin LeDell explains scalable ensemble learning with H2O. Also at Strata, Arno Candel explains why Deep Learning is eating your lunch.

On the Dataiku blog, someone named Margot explains automated model deployment with Data Science Studio.

On the DataTorrent blog, David Yan explains latency calculations in Apache Apex.

Christopher Crosbie explains SparkR on EMR, on the AWS Big Data blog.

Perspectives

Jack Vaughan notes the prominence of streaming analytics at Strata, quotes some old guy who thinks streaming is a thing.

On the Cloudera Vision Blog, Dan Sturman describes Cloudera’s response to what he characterizes as a software quality challenge.

Cloud vendor Altiscale’s Raymie Stata asks which is best for Spark and Hadoop: cloud or on-premises. Spoiler: he thinks you should choose cloud.

On LinkedIn, consultant Rick van der Lans touts Apache Drill.

Wikibon releases forecasts of Spark adoption and the Big Data market. You can either pay Wikibon for a subscription, or read George Leopold’s summary here or Mike Wheatley’s summary here.

Alex Woodie recaps Doug Cutting’s keynoter at Strata+Hadoop.

On the tech blog for Berlin-based online retailer Zalando, Javier Lopez and Mihail Vieru recap a recently completed Flink versus Spark bakeoff. They like Flink’s low latency which, as a fashion retailer, they totally think they need. The bottom line, though, seems to be that DataArtisans is just a few stops away on the U-Bahn, so they chose Flink.

Brandon Butler summarizes the Microsoft and Google challenges to Amazon in the cloud.

InfoWorld’s Martin Heller reviews Databricks’ Spark service, likes it.

In TechCrunch, Josh Klahr lists seven things to watch for at Strata + Hadoop World, which is still worth reading even though the show came and went.

Talend CMO Ashley Stirrup suggests you sharpen your customer reflexes with Apache Spark. If you want to improve your actual reflexes, read this.

Open Source Announcements

ASF announces Apache NiFi 0.6.0, with Kerberos authentication for its REST API and support for Amazon Kinesis, AWS Lambda, Splunk, and Apache Cassandra. (h/t Hadoop Weekly)

Commercial Announcements

OLAP-on-Hadoop vendor AtScale announces release 4.0. Key new bits: fine-grained security that links every query to an end user and an intelligent query optimizer that pushes down either as SQL or as MDX depending on end user tool. AtScale has also added to its platform integration, now supports  Business Objects, Cognos, Excel, Jaspersoft, Qlik, MicroStrategy, PowerBI, Spotfire, and Tableau on CDH, HDP, HDInsights and MapR with Hive/Tez, Impala and Spark SQL and an impressive list of data storage formats. Mike Wheatley reports.

Data integration startup Tamr announces “compatibility” with Spark. The press release does not specify whether that means connectivity, push-down integration or something else. Tamr is not certified by Databricks, and has not published anything on Spark Packages.

Pouring new wine into old bottles, IBM delivers Spark on a mainframe, as promised last July.  IBM touts this as a way to perform analysis of your data “in place”, which is great if all of your data is stuck on a mainframe.

IBM partners with Lightbend, the company formerly known as Typesafe, to deliver Scala training through the Big Data University.

Altiscale announces partnership with Tableau, will add visualization to its managed service for Big Data.

Databricks announces availability of APIs to automate Spark infrastructure. On the Databricks blog, Dave Wang explains.

Microsoft announces preview of R Server for HDInsight and an update to Apache Spark for Azure HDInsight. R Server for HDInsight is a rebranded version of Revolution Analytics’ ScaleR acquired last year. R Server is a distributed machine learning platform with push-down integration to MapReduce and Spark and an R API.

Flink promoter DataArtisans announces a 5.5 million Euro Series A financing round led by Intel Capital.

Dataiku announces a new release of Data Science Studio. The press release touts some new features, but I’ll refrain from commenting until the company posts release notes.